Analysis of Human Test Subject Kinematic Responses to Low Velocity Rear-End Impact


Dr. Whitman E. McConnell, Dr. Richard P. Howard, Mr. Herb M. Guzman, Dr. John B. Bomar, Dr. James H. Raddin, Jr., Dr. James V. Benedict, Dr. Harry L. Smith, Dr. Charles P. Hatsell


Vehicle and Occupant Kinematics: Simulation and Modeling (SP-975). SAE International Congress & Exposition, Detroit, MI, March 1-5, 1993. Warrendale, PA, Society of Automotive Engineers. 1993; 21-30. SAE Paper #930889.


The head, neck and trunk kinematic responses of four volunteer test subjects, recorded during a series of experimental low velocity motor vehicle collisions, have been measured and analyzed.  Using data obtained from multiple high speed film, video and electronic accelerometer measurements of the test subjects, it was found that the actual kinematic responses of the human head, neck and trunk that occur during low velocity rearend collisions are more complex than previously thought.  Our findings indicate that the time-honored description of the cervical “whiplash” response is both incomplete and inaccurate.

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